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The Two Bacchises. The Captives. The comedies of Plautus , who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. Twenty-one of his plays are extant. The Casket Comedy. The Two Menaechmuses. Tragedies, Volume I: Hercules. Phoenician Women. Seneca ca. AD 4—65 authored verse tragedies that strongly influenced Shakespeare and other Renaissance dramatists. Plots are based on myth, but themes reflect imperial Roman politics. John G. Fitch has thoroughly revised his two-volume edition to take account of scholarship that has appeared since its initial publication.

Aeneid: Books Virgil 70—19 BCE was a poet of immense virtuosity and influence. His Eclogues deal with bucolic life and love, his Georgics with tillage, trees, cattle, and bees. Poems of the Appendix Vergiliana are traditionally, but in most cases probably wrongly, attributed to Virgil. Appendix Vergiliana. Nicias and Crassus. Book 2: Description of the Statues in the Gymnasium of Zeuxippus. Book 3: Epigrams in the Temple of Apollonis at Cyzicus. Book 4: Prefaces to the Various Anthologies. Book 5: Erotic Epigrams.

The Greek Anthology contains some 4, Greek poems in the sparkling, diverse genre of epigram, written by more than a hundred composers, collected over centuries, and arranged by subject. This Loeb edition replaces the earlier edition by W. Paton , with a Greek text and ample notes reflecting current scholarship. Book 8: The Epigrams of St. Gregory the Theologian. The Greek Anthology Gathering of Flowers is a collection over centuries of some short Greek poems called epigrams but seldom epigrammatic by about composers.

Meleager of Gadara first century BCE , an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus Garland , a compilation fundamental to the Anthology. Daphnis and Chloe. Anthia and Habrocomes. Enquiry into Plants, Volume I: Books In the former, Theophrastus classifies and describes varieties—covering trees, plants of particular regions, shrubs, herbaceous plants, and cereals; in the last of the nine books he focuses on plant juices and medicinal properties of herbs.

His On Odours and Weather Signs are minor treatises. It is in the form of Galenism that Greek medicine was transmitted to later ages. In his Gallic War and Civil Wars , Caesar —44 BCE provides vigorous, direct, clear, third-personal, and largely unemotional records of his own campaigns.

Nearly all the works Aristotle — BCE prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda some are spurious. They can be categorized as: practical; logical; physical; metaphysical; on art; other; or fragments. Theological Tractates. The Consolation of Philosophy. The classical and Christian worlds meet in Boethius c. His Tractates examine the Trinity and incarnation in Aristotelian terms.

His Consolation of Philosophy , a dialogue between himself and Philosophy, is theistic in tone but draws on Greek, especially Neoplatonist, sources. In epistles Seneca c. Tragedies, Volume II: Oedipus. Hercules on Oeta. On Odours. Weather Signs. Lysander and Sulla. Vandalic War. Book The Convivial and Satirical Epigrams. Book Strato's Musa Puerilis. Book Arithmetical Problems, Riddles, Oracles. Book Miscellanea. Lives, Volume V: Agesilaus and Pompey. Pelopidas and Marcellus. Hellenica by Xenophon c. The Anabasis by Xenophon c. Bite and wit characterize two seminal and stellar authors in the history of satirical writing, Persius 34—62 CE and Juvenal writing about sixty years later.

The latter especially had a lasting influence on English writers of the Renaissance and succeeding centuries. The Exhortation to the Greeks. The Rich Man's Salvation. To the Newly Baptized. Born probably CE in Athens, Clement was a key figure in early Christianity with wide knowledge of Greek literature and culture.

His Exhortation to the Greeks to give up their gods and turn to Christ shows familiarity with the mystery cults. Pausanias fl. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today. Epigrams, Volume I: Spectacles, Books In his epigrams, Martial c. His poems are sometimes obscene, in the tradition of the genre, sometimes affectionate or amusing, and always pointed.

The surviving works of Ausonius c. There is also an address of thanks to Gratian for the consulship. Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus. Alexander and Caesar. Phocion and Cato the Younger. Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius. Lives, Volume X: Agis and Cleomenes. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus.

Philopoemen and Flamininus. Lives, Volume XI: Aratus. General Index. As examples of Greek oratory the speeches of Aeschines or — BCE rank next to those of Demosthenes, and are important documents for the study of Athenian diplomacy and inner politics. Gothic War. The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts —, —, and — BCE that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before BCE.

Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69— What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14—28, 31—37, and, partially, 47— Fronto c.

His correspondence offers an invaluable picture of aristocratic life and literary culture in the second century. His correspondence offers an invaluable picture of aristocratic life and literary culture in the 2nd century. Of its books 1—10, 21—45 except parts of 41 and 43—45 , fragments, and short summaries remain. Ausonius, Volume II: Books Paulinus Pellaeus: Eucharisticus. The War with Catiline. The War with Jugurtha. Although Sallust is decidedly unsubtle and partisan in analyzing people and events, his works are important and significantly influenced later historians, notably Tacitus.

After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus born c. Attributed to Apollodorus of Athens born c.

What if our weakness were the best part of us?

Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium , which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic , which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery. Quintilian , born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

In his history, Polybius c. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world. Hymns and Epigrams. Lycophron: Alexandra. Aratus: Phaenomena.

Callimachus third century BCE authored hymns and epigrams. The monodrama Alexandra is attributed to his contemporary, Lycophron. Phaenomena , a poem on star constellations and weather signs by Aratus c. The Double Indictment or Trials by Jury. On Sacrifices. The Ignorant Book Collector. The Dream or Lucian's Career. The Parasite. The Lover of Lies. The Judgement of the Goddesses. On Salaried Posts in Great Houses. Unlike his predecessors, Epictetus c. Dis Exapaton. Lives of the Sophists. Eunapius: Lives of the Philosophers and Sophists. Panegyric on Probinus and Olybrius.

Against Rufinus 1 and 2. War against Gildo. Against Eutropius 1 and 2. Fescennine Verses on the Marriage of Honorius. Epithalamium of Honorius and Maria. Panegyrics on the Third and Fourth Consulships of Honorius. Claudius Claudianus c. A panegyric on the brothers Probinus and Olybrius consuls together in CE was followed mostly by epics in hexameters, but also by elegiacs, epistles, epigrams, and idylls. On Stilicho's Consulship Panegyric on the Sixth Consulship of Honorius. The Gothic War. Shorter Poems.

Rape of Proserpina. Historia Augusta, Volume I: Hadrian. Antoninus Pius. Marcus Aurelius. Avidius Cassius. Didius Julianus. Septimius Severus. Pescennius Niger. Clodius Albinus. Of uncertain reliability and authorship, it is now attributed by many authorities to one late fourth century CE author. Opellius Macrinus.

Severus Alexander. The Two Maximini. The Three Gordians. Maximus and Balbinus. Sappho , the most famous woman poet of antiquity, whose main theme was love, and Alcaeus , poet of wine, war, and politics, were two illustrious singers of sixth-century BCE Lesbos.

Anacreon c. The Anacreonta were composed over several centuries. Dithyrambic poets of the new school were active from the mid-fifth to mid-fourth century BCE. Seven against Thebes. Prometheus Bound. Aeschylus c. Seven of his eighty or so plays survive complete, including the Oresteia trilogy and the Persians , the only extant Greek historical drama. Oresteia: Agamemnon. Ancient Medicine. Airs, Waters, Places. Epidemics 1 and 3. The Oath. Regimen in Acute Diseases. The Sacred Disease. The Art.

Physician Ch. On Wounds in the Head. In the Surgery. On Fractures. On Joints. Nature of Man. Regimen in Health. Regimen Heracleitus: On the Universe. Compendium of Roman History. Res Gestae Divi Augusti. Ecclesiastical History, Volume I: Books Eusebius , Bishop of Caesarea from about CE, was the most important writer in the age of Constantine. His history of the Christian church from the ministry of Jesus to CE is a treasury of information, especially on the Eastern centers.

On Old Age. On Friendship. On Divination. Demosthenes — BCE , orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life. Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus, and Onasander. The surviving work of Aeneas fourth century BCE is on defense against siege.

Asclepiodotus first century BCE wrote a work on Tactics as though for the lecture room, based on earlier manuals, not personal experience. Against the Galilaeans. Pro Archia. Post Reditum in Senatu. Post Reditum ad Quirites. De Domo Sua. De Haruspicum Responsis. Pro Plancio. The main part of his history covers the years — BC, describing the rise of Rome, the destruction of Carthage, and the eventual domination of the Greek world. It is a vital achievement despite the incomplete survival of all but the first five of forty books.

For this six-volume edition of The Histories , W. All but the first five of forty volumes survive in an incomplete state.


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Volume VI includes fragments unattributed to particular books of The Histories. Anacharsis or Athletics. Menippus or The Descent into Hades. On Funerals. A Professor of Public Speaking. Alexander the False Prophet. Essays in Portraiture. Essays in Portraiture Defended. The Goddesse of Surrye. The Merchant. The Braggart Soldier. The Ghost. The Persian. Greater Hippias. Lesser Hippias. In Memorabilia and in Oeconomicus , a dialogue about household management, we see the philosopher Socrates through the eyes of his associate, Xenophon.

In the Symposium , we obtain insight on life in Athens. The Aqueducts of Rome , written in 97—98, gives some historical details and a description of the aqueducts for the water supply of the city, with laws relating to them. Aristophanes c. In Acharnians a small landowner, tired of the Peloponnesian War, magically arranges a personal peace treaty; Knights is perhaps the most biting satire of a political figure Cleon ever written. Women at the Thesmophoria. The protagonists of Birds create a utopian counter-Athens. In Lysistrata wives go on conjugal strike until their husbands end war.

Women in Women at the Thesmophoria punish Euripides for portraying them as wicked. Traditional Aeschylus and modern Euripides compete in Frogs. In Assemblywomen , Athenian women plot against male misgovernance. Lucretius lived ca. In his didactic poem De Rerum Natura On the Nature of Things he expounds Epicurean philosophy so as to dispel fear of the gods and death, and promote spiritual tranquility. Constitution of the Lacedaemonians. Ways and Means. Cavalry Commander. Art of Horsemanship. On Hunting. Constitution of the Athenians. Minor works by Xenophon c. The Constitution of the Athenians , though not by Xenophon, is an interesting document on Athenian politics.

Diogenes Laertius probably early third century BCE compiled his compendium on the lives and doctrines of the ancient philosophers from hundreds of sources. It ranges over three centuries, from Thales to Epicurus, portraying 45 important figures, and is enriched by numerous quotations. The major works of Josephus c. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion. Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About he founded a convent in Pontus and in succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea.

His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries. In the Satires Horace mocks himself as well as the world. His verse epistles include the Art of Poetry , in which he famously expounds his literary theory. Aulus Gellius ca. On Listening to Lectures.

Sacred Gate - The Coming Storm/The Immortal One

How to Tell a Flatterer from a Friend. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia Moral Essays. They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion. Pro Lege Manilia. Pro Caecina. Pro Cluentio. Pro Rabirio Perduellionis Reo. Longinus: On the Sublime.

Demetrius: On Style. Hamilton Demetrius Innes, Doreen C. Rhys Roberts, W. The subject of On the Sublime , attributed to an unidentifiable Longinus and probably composed in the first century CE, is greatness in writing. On Style , attributed to an unidentifiable Demetrius and perhaps composed in the second century BCE, analyzes four literary styles. Alcibiades I and II. The Lovers. Isaeus c.

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He shares with Lysias pure Attic and lucidity of style, but his more aggressive and flexible presentation undoubtedly influenced Demosthenes. Of at least fifty attributed orations, there survive eleven on legacy cases and a large fragment dealing with a claim of citizenship. In The Learned Banqueters late-2nd century CE , Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature.

The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture. Letters to Friends, Volume I: Letters The verse is light in touch, with a distinct pictorial quality. Mozley, is now reissued with corrections by Christopher A. Greek literary education and Roman political reality are evident in the poetry of Statius c. His Silvae are thirty-two occasional poems.

His masterpiece, the epic Thebaid , recounts the struggle for kingship between the two sons of Oedipus. To Demonicus. To Nicocles. Nicocles or the Cyprians. To Philip. Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive; these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases. Nine letters, more on public than private matters, are also extant. De Constantia. De Ira. De Clementia. In Moral Essays , Seneca c. History of the Wars, Volume V: Books 7. Discourses, Books The Encheiridion.

In Fishing , Oppian of Cilicia, who flourished in the latter half of the second century CE, discusses fish and gives angling instructions. The Chase , on hunting, may be the work of a Syrian imitator. The poem is also called Pharsalia. Against Verres, Part 1; Part 2, Books On Having Many Friends. Virtue and Vice. Letter of Condolence to Apollonius. Advice About Keeping Well. Advice to Bride and Groom. The Dinner of the Seven Wise Men. Herodas: Mimes. Sophron and Other Mime Fragments. Fictionalized faults are the focus of Characters by Theophrastus c.

The Hellenistic poet Herodas wrote mimes in which everyday life is portrayed and character—as opposed to plot—depicted. Mimes by Sophron fifth century BCE and anonymous mime fragments also represent that genre. On the Creation. Allegorical Interpretation of Genesis 2 and 3. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought. On the Cherubim. The Sacrifices of Abel and Cain. The Worse Attacks the Better.

On the Posterity and Exile of Cain. On the Giants. On the Peace. Against the Sophists. Florus second century CE wrote, in brief pointed rhetorical style, a two-book summary of Roman history especially military in order to show the greatness and decline of Roman morals. Art of Love. Remedies for Love. Sea Fishing.

His Ibis is an elegiac curse-poem. History of Rome, Volume V: Books History of Rome, Volume V: Books 21— This Loeb edition replaces the original by B. Anabasis of Alexander, Volume I: Books The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian ca. Orations, Volume I: Orations and Olynthiacs Philippic 1. Philippic 2.

On Halonnesus. On the Chersonese.

The Holy Flesh Movement - BEHOLD THE LAMB

Philippics 3 and 4. Answer to Philip's Letter. Philip's Letter. On Organization. On the Navy-boards. For the Liberty of the Rhodians. For the P. Pro Quinctio. Sister Emanuelle Certificate: K Drama. Evil Aliens Comedy Horror Sci-Fi. Convent of Sinners Love Letters of a Portuguese Nun Drama Adventure Horror. Cradle of Fear Video Threesome TV Series The Reverend Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Sally Tremaine Mother Superior Moyna Cope Abbess Simon Hill Abbot - Father Henry Kristina Bill Mary Magdalene Rachel Taggart Catechism Eileen Daly Repression Daisy Weston Richard Emily Booth Williams Girl Willow Herself Laura Plair Succubi Leasa Carlyon Nun Nicole Bouchet Edit Storyline Taunted by visions of Mary Magdalene, who reveals the confessions of the younger nuns at the convent, the Mother Superior's mind is filled with the violent, sexual acts of her fellow sisters.

Taglines: In the midst of life we are in death. Genres: Horror. Edit Details Country: UK. Language: English. Runtime: 75 min. Color: Color. Edit Did You Know? Quotes Mother Superior : Surely you wouldn't argue, Magdalene, that all man's desires should be submitted to at will? That in effect there should be no restraint? That moral forebearance no longer has a part in our relationships? That the most base of emotions should now be the pinnacle of our aspirations? Add the first question. Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Report this. Through the sacrifice made in our behalf, sins may be perfectly forgiven.

Our dependence is not in what man can do; it is in what God can do for man through Christ. When we surrender ourselves wholly to God, and fully believe, the blood of Christ cleanses from all sin. The conscience can be freed from condemnation. Through faith in His blood, all may be made perfect in Christ Jesus.

Thank God we are not dealing with impossibilities. We may claim sanctification. We may enjoy the favor of God. Ye are accepted in the Beloved. The Lord shows, to the repenting, believing one, that Christ accepts the surrender of the soul, to be moulded and fashioned after His own likeness When human beings receive holy flesh, they will not remain on the earth, but will be taken to heaven. While sin is perfectly forgiven in this life, its results are not wholly removed.

It is at His coming that Christ is to "change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto His glorious body. When Christ shall come with a great sound of a trumpet, and shall call the dead from their prison house, then the saints will receive holy flesh Those who meet Christ in peace at His coming must in this life walk before Him in humility, meekness, and lowliness of mind.

But the late experience of brethren in Indiana has not been in accordance with the Lord's instruction. I have not during this Conference held conversation with any one in regard to this matter, but the Lord has given me a definite testimony that a strange work is being done in Indiana, the results of which are not after His order. This phase of religious enthusiasm is a dangerous delusion.

The sentiments and exercises are not prompted by the Holy Spirit. They have led to very sad results Brethren from Indiana, the word of the Lord to you and to all who are misled by your influence is: "Be not carried about with divers and strange doctrines. For it is a good thing that the heart be established with grace.

The example and lessons of Christ are to be our study: for in Christ dwells all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. In Him are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. Looking unto Jesus, the author and the finisher of our faith, we are to move onward and upward. And who can describe the benefits of appreciating Him who is invisible? We need to contemplate Christ and become assimilated to His image through the transforming power of the Holy Spirit.

This is our only safeguard against being entangled in Satan's delusive snares. Reaction followed swiftly. The next day, April 18, Elder R. Donnell, the Indiana Conference President, gave his confession concerning his involvement in the Movement. He confessed: I feel unworthy to stand before this large assembly of my brethren this morning. Very early in life I was taught to reverence and to love the word of God; and when reading in it how God used to talk to His people, correcting their wrongs, and guiding them in all their ways, when a mere boy I used to say: "Why don't we have a prophet?

Why doesn't God talk to us now as He used to do? It has been suggested to me at times in the past, that the test on this point of faith comes when the Testimony cames directly to us. But, brethren, I can thank God this morning that my faith in the Spirit of prophecy remains unshaken. God has spoken. He says I was wrong, and I answer, God is right, and I am wrong.

Yea, let God be true, and every man a liar. I am very, very sorry that I have done that which would mar the cause of God, and lead anyone in the wrong way. I have asked God to forgive me, and I know that He has done it.

As delegates and representatives of the cause of God in the earth, I now ask you to forgive me for my sins, and I ask your prayers for strength and wisdom to walk aright in the future. It is my determination by the help of God, to join glad hands with you in the kingdom of God. General Conference Bulletin, , p. Davis asked to speak to the delegates before returning to Indiana that afternoon. He stated: On account of some matters at home, I shall be compelled to go to my home this afternoon. Perhaps most of you know, if not all, heard what the Testimony had to say about the work in Indiana; and with shamefacedness I have to face this congregation and say today that I had a part in that work, and, in fact, I was among the first in it.

I thought for a while that I would be the last out of it. But I praise God now that the victory is won, and inasmuch as the Lord has spoken and said that the work was wrong, I agree with the Lord today. The work was wrong. Inasmuch as the Lord has said that the men who were at the head of that work were led in the wrong direction, I agree with the Lord that something led me in the wrong direction. Brethren, while there are a great many things connected with this that I do not know how much I am guilty of, I do not want to excuse myself at all. I am just willing that this congregation and this people can just charge me with all the blame of what was done in Indiana; and when we get up in the Judgment, God will settle it all; and when the work of the third angel's message triumphs, I expect by the grace of God to triumph with it.

When you stand on the sea of glass, I hope to stand there and help you in singing the songs of Moses. On April 19, at the 24th Meeting of the Session, the chairman, G. Irwin announced that Brethren Miller, Chew and Stanley felt that they would like to make a statement before the delegates of the Conference. The first to speak was A. As I for one have been connected with the work there, I felt that I should state to you how I have received the message from God. I am a firm believer in the Testimonies, and when the Lord speaks, I say, "Amen. Following this testimony, P. Stanley confessed: One of the most honorable things that a man can do when he is over taken in a fault or has sinned, is to confess it.

Confess it to Jesus, and let Him bury it in the depths of the sea. This is God's plan and God's way of getting out of sin. It is the right way, it is a legitimate and Biblical way, and this is the way that I propose to adopt. I praise the Lord for the Testimony that He gave us. The happiest days of my life at this meeting have been since the Testimony came.

The Lord has spoken, and I have heard, and I believe every word of it, and I assure you, brethren and sisters, that while Satan caught me in his trap this time, by the help of the Lord I will never be cauqht in it again, and so I take my stand with you today upon the principles of truth as taught by this people.

Brother A. Chew joined his brethren by stating: I, too am glad for this opportunity to express myself in regard to the reproof that has been given us, as I am one that had a very prominent part in this movement, and when the Testimony was given, I do not think there was any one who was more ready to receive it than myself, because I could see that God was in it; and that God was taking away nothing but that which was error, and was leaving me all the truth.

While my heart was sad to think that I had been doing things that the Lord did not want me to do, yet I do thank the Lord that He came and corrected me and let me know it. When these brethren had completed their testimonies, Elder F. Roberts, ho was not a member of the committee, yet who was convicted of the part he had played in the Movement, came forward and joined the members of the conference committee in their confessions.

The Ills That Flesh Is Heir to

While I did not belong to the Conference Committee, I stood by the Committee, and believed what we were teaching was the truth. When I do anything, I do it with all my might. That has been my way of doing ever since I can remember anything of myself. When I quit anything, I quit it just as hard. I love my Heavenly Father because He loves me; and the fact that He chastens me proves that He still loves me.

I am glad that we are not called upon to forsake truth, but to forsake error, and I feel like saying, as did Samuel, "Speak, Lord; for thy servant heareth. I have studied them for years and years, and no small thing will shake me loose from them. The Spirit of prophecy has been the salvation of this people. It has kept us together all these years, and our adherence to the principles taught in them will keep us together to the end.

I have confessed my sin to God and the aged men whose counsel I once refused, and now I ask any before me, today whom I have injured in any way to forgive me. I am going through with you to the Kingdom of God. At the General Conference Session, all the officers and members of the Indiana Conference committee tendered their resignations. Since this was a local matter, rather than a General Conference problem, word was conveyed to the constituency of Indiana and a conference session was convened in Indianapolis, May , for the purpose of electing new officers.

Elders A. Daniells, W. Prescott, A. Jones, P. Magan, and W. White attended this conference business meeting. Also Ellen G. White who was returning to the West Coast joined the brethren in Indianapolis, and remained with them till Sunday noon. Jones wrote: The principles and spirit that had characterized the course of the General Conference just closed were continued in this general meeting and conference in Indiana. Everything was done openly, with all the people present. Everything was stated candidly, and made plain to all, that all the people might know all that was done, and should themselves be the principals in the doing of it.

Since they, the people of the Indiana Conference, are the Indiana Conference, what was to be done in this conference, as of the Indiana Conference, must be done by the people. Therefore, it was essential that everything should be plainly stated and thoroughly known by the people who were to do what must be done. On Sunday afternoon the final business meeting was held and the report of the nominating committee was accepted.

Ira J. Hankins was elected president, and P. Stanley, Enoch Swartz, J. Crandall, and R. Ross, M. Stanley was carried over from the previous administration. One of the first acts of the new committee was to care for the pastorate of the Indianapolis church since this headquarters church had been deeply involved in the "Holy Flesh" exercises. Bartlett was invited to serve in this capacity.

An interesting feature of this decision was the fact that Bartlett himself "was recovered from a heresy very akin to the holy flesh idea in due to the ministration of the Whites on the Indiana camp grounds at that time. In short, Bartlett had been reclaimed from this kind of view by the Whites and now apparently was considered to be the most appropriate worker in the conference to handle the delicate situation following Davis retired to his home in Elnora, Indiana, and Donnell also went there to live for a few years.

Of all the men involved in the "Holy Flesh" Movement, only S. Davis never returned to the ministry of the church. White bore a decided testimony to the delegates of the conference concerning the experience through which they had just passed. At the close of her discourse she said "When I am gone from here, none are to pick up any points of this doctrine and call it truth. There is not a thread of truth in the whole fabric. The objective of the message as given by the ministers of Indiana was to get "the people ready for translation.

It must be clearly understood before analyzing the threads of the fabric, that those who advocated this teaching were not referring to the physical nature of man, when the term, "sinless flesh," was used. Donnell in an essay on "The Nature of Christ and Man" stated that' "man's fallen Physical [sic] nature is not redeemed in this life. Provision has been made for its health, and cleansing from sin, but deterioration in size, and in strength, is not to be restored until in the earth made new, when the redeemed will go forth and grow up as calves of the stall.

And what is comprehended in that work? It is taking the mind or nature which Adam received in the fall, which is the mind of Satan, out of humanity, and the restoring back to man that nature which Adam had before he fell, with added power to do right. In teaching this doctrine, they went a step further and stated that if an individual sinned through yielding from within, it was evidence that his fallen nature had not been eradicated.

Donnell wrote: When Adam and Eve sinned, they were conformed to the nature of Satan. That nature was begotten to every son and daughter of Adam, and they don't have to be tempted in order to cause them to sin. They are born sinners, and they sin by nature. It is those who have accepted the plan of salvation, by repentance toward God, and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, that they might once more become sons of God, who are tempted to sin.

Satan is striving to get them to fall as he did Adam.


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Temptation is that by which we are tested as to whether there is still lust in our hearts, for the 14th verse [James 1] says: "But every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his own lust and enticed. To the advocates of this doctrine, a truly converted man - a cleansed man no longer had the fallen nature of Adam. This experience - a prerequisite for translation - was obtained by coming to the "altar" and going through "Gethsemane" with their Lord.

When this experience was realized, it meant they had received "translation faith" and would never die. Elder S. Huntington who opposed this movement wrote in reply: Accompanying the sinless flesh doctrine is another we will now consider, viz. The work that is accredited to cleansing and conversion is the work of sanctification, which is a progressive work, the work of a lifetime. At conversion our sins are forgiven, we are freed from the curse of the law, the rightousness of Christ is imparted to us and we stand justified before God.

But the work of redemption in us is then only fairly begun; we are only babes in Christ, and need to be purged and tried, and to grow up to the stature of men and women in Christ Jesus. In support of his position, Huntington quoted from a tract issued in , which stated: The Christian is to realize that he is not his own, but that he has been bought with a price. His strongest temptations will come from within; for he must battle against the inclinations of the natural heart.

Underlying this doctrine of "sinless flesh", there was a basic-thread of error, and it concerned the doctrine of the Incarnation of Christ - the nature of that humanity Christ assumed when He became the Son of man. Immediately following the General Conference Session, letters came to Sister White "affirming that Christ could not have had the same nature as man, for if He had, He would have fallen under similar temptations.

In our conclusions we make many mistakes because of our erroneous views of the human nature of our Lord. When we give to His human nature a power that it is not possible for man to have in his conflicts with Satan, we destroy the completeness of His humanity. It was because He was God, and James has told us that God cannot be tempted with evil.

Then He was not in sinful flesh, neither did He have sinful tendencies in Him. He wants us to become God's [sic] so that we cannot be tempted to sin. In the 82nd Psalm, and the 6th verse, He says, "I have said, ye are God's, and all you are the children,of the Most High" [sic]. The next verse says; "But ye shall die like men. Because they will not become God's [sic] so that they can quit sinning. The , must attain in this life unto this high estate of perfection in character, as the sons of God, and the daughters of the Almighty, for they do not go through the grave, to leave their imperfections there.

Like Christ they must become so related to God that they cannot be even tempted to sin. Donnell explained just what he understood this "Godlike experience" to mean. He stated in the same essay: By His life on earth, He [Jesus] showed what humanity will do when filled with the divine mind. Then every member of the human race, who will renounce Satan, and his works, and will permit Christ to clothe Himself with his humanity, in that act, becomes a member of the family of heaven.

That is just what it will be, if we will let the divine mind come into us. It will be divinity clothed with humanity, and that is just what Christ was. And thus clothed He did no sin. What did the advocates of the "Holy Flesh" doctrine actually believe in regard to the humanity of the Son of God?

Haskell in a letter to Ellen G. White told of his contention with them over this point of doctrine. He wrote - when we stated that we believed that Christ was born in fallen humanity, they would represent us as believing that Christ sinned, notwithstanding the fact that we would state our position so clearly that it would seem as though no one could misunderstand us. Their point of theology in this particular respect seems to be this: They believe that Christ took Adam's nature before he fell; so He took humanity as it was in the garden of Eden, and thus humanity was holy, and this is the humanity which Christ had; and now, they say, the particular time has come for us to become holy in that sense, and then we will have "translation faith" and never die.

The advocates of the sinless flesh doctrine were careful to emphasize that in His humanity Christ bore the physical likeness of a man; but that the body He accepted had been redeemed from its fallen spiritual nature. Donnell stated: He took a body which showed by its deteriorated condition, that the effects of sin was shown by it, but His life proved that there was no sin in it. It was a body which the Father had prepared for Him. Christ's body represented a body redeemed from its fallen spiritual nature, but not from its fallen, or deteriorated physical nature.

It was a body redeemed from sin, and with that body Christ clothed His divinity. Along with the text in Hebrews - "A body hast thou prepared me" - the Scripture, "Hebrews 2: , was used to prove that Christ was born with flesh like 'my brethren' and 'the church' would have after they passed through the garden experience," in other words, converted and cleansed. This was a point strongly emphasized. Huntington in replying to this point quoted Desire of Ages, page , that Christ "is the Son of man, and thus a brother to every son and daughter of Adam.

Now if the spiritual seed of Abraham and the sanctified ones only are those referred to, and they being redeemed and no longer under the law, and Jesus was made like unto them, then it would become evident that Jesus was not made under the law at all. This is exactly what the men leading the Movement in Indiana believed, that Christ was exempt from the law of heredity that effects every other child of Adam.

In , the president who succeeded Donnell, Elder Ira J. Hankins, wrote to S. Davis in Elnora, asking him some questions concerning his beliefs. One question asked - "Is every child born into this world naturally inclined to evil even before it is old enough to discern between good and evil?

He wrote: In adopting the theory of sinless flesh, though its advocates have ever been loathe to admit it, they are nevertheless, unconsciously led into the papal error of the Immaculate Conception and other heresies of the Catholic church. The theory of sinless flesh is pre-eminently papal - the foundation upon which the Catholic church stands. Remove this, and the whole structure of the Papacy, as a religion, falls to the ground. The expression, "sinless flesh", is nowhere found in the Bible: then why adopt such an expression The record says that Christ was "made in the likeness of sinful flesh," Rom.

Then let us believe that it was just that way without trying to spiritualize these plain declarations to suit a perverted fancy, and by so doing entangle ourselves in an inextricable web of inconsistencies. Sister White had declared plainly that no one was to pick up any of the points of this doctrine and call it truth, for there was not a thread of truth in the whole fabric.

Note carefully the three questionable concepts in regard to the Incarnation held by the "Holy Flesh" advocates in Indiana: 1 "Christ took Adam's nature before he fell. In , R. Allan Anderson, editor of the Ministry magazine, and Secretary of the Ministerial Department of the General Conference declared: Christ did indeed partake of our nature, our human nature with all its physical limitations, but not of our carnal nature with all its lustful corruptions. When He entered the human family it was after the race had been greatly weakened by degeneracy.

For thousands of years mankind had been physically deteriorating. Compared with Adam and his immediate posterity, humanity, when God appeared in human flesh, was stunted in stature, longevity, and vitality. In , the same minister of the church wrote again in his official capacity these words: When the incarnate God broke into human history and became one with the race, it is our understanding that He possessed the sinlessness of the nature with which Adam was created in Eden. In the same year, the book - Questions on Doctrine - was released which stated: Although born in the flesh, He was nevertheless God, and was exempt from the inherited passions and pollutions that corrupt the natural descendants of Adam.

He was "without sin," not only in His outward conduct, but in His very nature. In , Dr. Pierson, and Neal C. Wilson, wrote that in an interchange of correspondence with a Dr. Schuyler English, editor of Our Hope, an Evangelical publication, English had contended: He [Christ] was perfect in His humanity, but He was none the less God, and His conception in His incarnation was overshadowed by the Holy Spirit so that He did not partake of the fallen sinful nature of other men.

To this, Froom placed the postscript - "That, we in turn assured him, is precisely what we [the Seventh-day Adventist Church] likewise believe. There are a great many that have got the marks yet. Godliness - godlikeness - is the goal to be reached. In the beginning, man was created in the image of God.

God endowed man with holy attributes and placed him in a garden made expressly for him. Adam and Eve were created free moral agents in the strictest sense. It was theirs to choose. Adam could be tempted only from without, not from within. All the organs and faculties of his being were equally developed, and harmoniously balanced. This change has become the inheritance of all the sons and daughters of Adam. There is in his nature a bent to evil, a force which, unaided, he cannot resist.

Christ always separates the contrite soul from sin. He came to destroy the works of the devil, and He has made provision that the Holy. Spirit shall be imparted to every repentant soul, to keep him from sinning. This is perfection. The question between the men of Indiana was not the matter of whether the gospel could preserve men from sin, or whether the power of the Holy Spirit was sufficient to keep a human being from sinning. The question that separated them was the nature of the humanity which Christ assumed in becoming the Son of man, and its application to the life of a believer.

The leaders of the "Holy Flesh" Movement taught that Christ took the nature of Adam before the Fall; that Christ was a stranger to the fallen nature of man, except in its physical characteristics. He appeared as a man, yet was fully God, and therefore, Satan did not overcome Him by temptations from without, and not having assumed man's sinful nature, He could not be tempted from within. How was such a life to be related to the present Christian experience? To this question the men of Indiana addressed themselves by reasoning that since man had received because of the Fall a sinful nature with inclinations and weaknesses, the only way, was for these to be eradicated.

So they taught that a man must pass through "the Gethsemane" experience, and by so doing he would receive a nature like Christ had in His humanity - the unfallen nature of Adam. This was the by- path to the right from the narrow way walked by Christ. This same by-path was followed with variations by Brinsmead in his doctrine of perfection. In one of his first publications, he wrote: While it is true that the Christian is married to Christ at conversion, the union is not fully accomplished until the judgment. Then he will be as sinless in the flesh as Christ was sinless in the flesh.

It must be noted, in order for the record to be kept straight, that at this time , Brinsmead taught the historic Adventist position on the Incarnation. He wrote in the same book: Man could not keep the law cease sinning because of his fallen nature. God answered the need by sending His own son to live in the same nature as fallen humanity. For this reason Christ partook of human nature as it was since sin entered. Again: Notwithstanding the fact that Christ appeared on earth possessing the fallen nature of man, He lived a victorious life, and offered to God on our behalf the sacrifice of the spotless life.

Divinity came to dwell in humanity, yet did not in the least particular participate in its sin. This is the mystery of the incarnation. It was our fallen flesh that was lost through its utter impotency to keep the law of God. It was our fallen flesh that was in need of power to live in harmony with the divine will. But Christ, coming to dwell in our fallen flesh, kept perfectly the law of God. Thus Jesus condemned sin in the flesh - in our flesh.

This position on the Incarnation is incompatible with the doctrine of perfection which he had set forth, which was a replay of the "holy flesh" teaching - the eradication of the fallen nature of man. Instead of changing his teaching in regard to perfection to conform with the historic Adventist teaching on the Incarnation, he changed the base to fit the superstructure.

By , Brinsmead was teaching in regard to the incarnation this concept: "Christ became one flesh with us, His human nature was not sinful at birth as is that of other infants. His birth was decidedly different than that of any other children, for He was born of the Holy Spirit. Therefore His human nature was not severed from God; neither did Satan implant in His mind the spirit of disobedience. Through His supernatural birth He escaped from participation in man's Satanic inheritance.

There was no trace of sin in His human nature. One point about the humanity of Christ should be made clear. It was the Holy Spirit, and only the Holy Spirit, that created the unique sinlessness of the human nature of Christ. Thus for man to obtain such a nature,there would have to be the eradication of the fallen inheritance. The Holy Flesh advocates said this could be done by going through what they termed "the Gethsemane" experience. Brinsmead taught that it was by being "married" to divinity at the final atonement. This teaching, held for ten years, Brinsmead now admits was error.

With the admission of error in the area of "perfection" Brinsmead has not altered the change he made in his position on the Incarnation. That nature was begotten to every son and daughter of Adam Our critics felt that this was our most vulnerable point. The more vigorously this area was attacked, the more vigorously we defended it. Consequently, not only those opposed to the Awakening, but even those who espoused it, inevitably gravitated to regard this matter of the how, what and when of perfection as the summon bonum of the Awakening.

Be that as it may, this writer is persuaded that our understanding of the perfecting of the saints through the final atonement has not been altogether sound. Our humanity was generated from a sinful source: His was from a sinless source. But this is fallacious reasoning. Christ's divine nature was not, could not be created. Look carefully at the Scriptural declarations and it will be seen that the Holy Spirit generated Christ's human nature in the womb of the Virgin Mary.

We grant that Mary was a sinner by nature, and that a sinful nature could be transmitted by one human parent as by two. But the other fact to consider is that the human nature of Christ was divinely conceived and overshadowed by the Holy Spirit in the womb of Mary. The Holy Spirit is holiness personified. He "prepared" Heb. So the angel referred to Christ's humanity as "that holy thing" something that could never be said of our human nature. There is another by-path to the left, based on the same doctrine of the Leroy Froom.

Note the following sentences on pp. William G. Shedd's Dogmatic Theology. Since it is taught that Christ took the nature of Adam prior to the Fall, those who reject the by-path to the right taken by the "Holy Flesh" advocates, now teach that man can never reach the example set by Christ until the change which takes place at the Second Coming of Christ removes from man the fallen nature received through Adam. Thus the gospel is made to center in what has been done by God in Christ.