Hamish Ion Armies of Occupation. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Historical Dictionary of Poland, — Greenwood Publishing Group. Brown 3 February Slovakia in History. Jana Kochanowskiego. Media Depository. Archived from the original on 28 June Retrieved 13 March Cole; Kai Struve Retrieved 9 February Avalon Project. Yale Law School. Retrieved 25 September Hamilton Books. Niewyk; Francis R. Nicosia 13 August The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust.
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Gurock 1 January Fritz 13 September Ostkrieg: Hitler's War of Extermination in the East. University Press of Kentucky. Beyond Totalitarianism: Stalinism and Nazism Compared. Odilo Globocnik, Hitler's Man in the East. Osprey Publishing. This, according to German calculations, would involve about 20 million people. About million — all of them peasants — suitable for Germanization as far as "racial values" were concerned — would be allowed to remain.
They would be distributed among German majorities as slaves for labor and Germanized within a single generation The Social History of the Third Reich: — New Press NY.
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Duiker, Jackson J. Spielvogel, World History , Page By , two million ethnic Germans had been settled in Poland. Lukas, Did the Children Cry? Hitler's War against Jewish and Polish Children , — Hippocrene Books, New York, The policy of extermination was in the first place directed against the Jewish and Polish nations This criminal organization did not reject any means of furthering their aim of destroying the Jewish nation.
The wholesale extermination of Jews and also of Poles had all the characteristics of genocide in the biological meaning of this term. In Michael Burleigh; Wolfgang Wippermann The racial state: Germany, — Retrieved 22 April The Holocaust Encyclopedia. Ferencz Indiana University Press. Transaction Publishers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rubenstein; John K. Roth Westminster John Knox Press.
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Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 31 October Mroczne sekrety willi "Tereska": — Historia Rabki. Prybyla Wheatmark, Inc. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. In Carol Rittner, Stephen D. Smith, Irena Steinfeldt eds. New Leaf Press. Catholic Culture. Instytut Zachodni. Alma Mater, Issue November Archived from the original on 27 May Associated Press.
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Internet Archive, Retrieved 16 July Tygodnik Zamojski, 15 September Sixty years on, it's time to reinstate Georgi Zhukov and remember his role in defending Russia from the Nazis, writes Shane Kenny. The new German film Downfall , depicting Hitler's final days in his Berlin bunker before he committed suicide 60 years ago today, has received wide international acclaim. In the film, desperate Wehrmacht officers want to contact the Russian Marshal Georgi Zhukov to negotiate surrender. This was the military leader who, more than any other in the second World War, became Hitler's nemesis.
An international hero at the end of the war, he featured on the front page of Life magazine, in newspapers and on newsreels.
German–Soviet Non-Aggression Pact: A Bad Deal, 80 Years Ago | National Review
But Zhukov is now a neglected figure in the West. But the real truth of the European theatre is that it was essentially fought and won on the eastern front. I first visited Moscow as part of the Irish government's official delegation in to attend Boris Yeltsin's commemoration of the 50th anniversary of what Russians call the Great Patriotic War. With the fall of communism, Zhukov, who had become a Soviet-style "non-person" due to false charges of plotting to take over the revolution, and Stalin's fear of his popularity with the people and the Red Army, was finally celebrated as the major Russian hero of the victory over Nazi Germany.
Born into dire poverty in , Zhukov was decorated twice in the tsarist army during the first World War. He became a soldiers' Soviet leader during the revolution and joined the Communist Party in He survived Stalin's great purge of the military in , though he was a target of the debauched and murderous internal security chief Lavrenti Beria.
When Hitler launched his attack on Russia on June 22nd, , Zhukov, aged 45, had been chief of staff of the Red Army for just five months. Stalin received more than 80 warnings of the impending Nazi invasion in but dismissed them as "disinformation" concocted by Churchill and others to embroil him in a war with Hitler. Zhukov wanted the Red Army be put on full alert, but Stalin refused.
Finally, an ineffective, garbled warning was permitted on the evening before the invasion. It is not widely appreciated that Hitler's surprise attack on Russia was conceived as a war of extermination as well as territorial conquest. He intended the complete destruction of Leningrad and Moscow, with the annihilation of their civilian populations. The capital was to be flooded as an artificial lake, drowning men, women and children. The first battles were catastrophic for Soviet forces.
How The Eastern Front Decided World War II
There was chaos and demoralisation. About 1, aircraft were destroyed on the ground in the early hours of the attack, and whole armies were surrounded and captured within weeks. The Germans advanced hundreds of miles into Russian territory. After a briefing from Zhukov on the unfolding disaster, Stalin stalked out of the defence commissariat with Beria and Malenkov, muttering disconsolately to them: "Lenin founded our state, and we've fucked it up".
The battle for Kiev, the Ukrainian capital, led to a blazing row between Stalin and Zhukov, who wanted Russian forces withdrawn from the city before they were surrounded. Stalin shouted that Zhukov's plans were "nonsense! Angrily, Zhukov resigned as chief of staff, but a wily Stalin did not wish to alienate him. He made it clear he would remain a member of the Stavka - the inner war command. Kiev fell in mid-September and more than a half a million men were killed or captured. When I interviewed Zhukov's eldest daughters Era and Ella in Moscow, they said sadly their father "was proved right".
It shows that Stalin may have been more serious than we realised in offering this alliance. Professor Donald Cameron Watt, author of How War Came - widely seen as the definitive account of the last 12 months before war began - said the details were new, but said he was sceptical about the claim that they were spelled out during the meetings. The declassified archives - which cover the period from early until the outbreak of war in September - reveal that the Kremlin had known of the unprecedented pressure Britain and France put on Czechoslovakia to appease Hitler by surrendering the ethnic German Sudetenland region in Stalin's sources, Gen Sotskov says, were Soviet foreign intelligence agents in Europe, but not London.
Shortly before the notorious Munich Agreement of - in which Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister, effectively gave Hitler the go-ahead to annexe the Sudetenland - Czechoslovakia's President Eduard Benes was told in no uncertain terms not to invoke his country's military treaty with the Soviet Union in the face of further German aggression. The top secret discussions between the Anglo-French military delegation and the Soviets in August - five months after the Nazis marched into Czechoslovakia - suggest both desperation and impotence of the western powers in the face of Nazi aggression.
Poland, whose territory the vast Russian army would have had to cross to confront Germany, was firmly against such an alliance. Britain was doubtful about the efficacy of any Soviet forces because only the previous year, Stalin had purged thousands of top Red Army commanders. The documents will be used by Russian historians to help explain and justify Stalin's controversial pact with Hitler, which remains infamous as an example of diplomatic expediency.
A desperate attempt by the French on August 21 to revive the talks was rebuffed, as secret Soviet-Nazi talks were already well advanced. It was only two years later, following Hitler's Blitzkreig attack on Russia in June , that the alliance with the West which Stalin had sought finally came about - by which time France, Poland and much of the rest of Europe were already under German occupation. Terms and Conditions.